Chitral Today
Latest Updates and Breaking News

From caves to computers: the human journey


Ubaid Sahil

Humans have been discovering new horizons and inventing new technologies and tools. This journey of discoveries and inventions is happening at a speed that has never been recorded before in known history. The history of humankind can be traced back to around 2.8 million years ago, but it was only 12,000 years ago that humans experienced the agricultural revolution. Before that, humans lived in caves for thousands of years. During that period, the only available technology consisted of basic stone and wooden tools. There was no concept of civilization, cities, or societies, and the human population was limited to tribes and clans.

When the agricultural revolution occurred, it accelerated the speed of development, leading humans to discover and invent new technologies and tools. In the years following the agricultural revolution, humankind invented writing systems and established ruling states. Later, humans invented the wheel and then the train, which transformed communication systems dramatically. After that, the industrial and digital revolutions occurred, and today we are experiencing the remarkable revolution of artificial intelligence.

The use of tools is as old as human life itself. Estimates suggest that around 2.6 million years ago, humans began using stone tools. Initially, these tools were primarily used for hunting and feeding purposes. Around 2.5 million years ago, humans sharpened stone and wooden tools for hunting and cutting. By 1.7 million years ago, humans had modified these simple tools to make them more advanced, creating axes and other similar cutting tools.

Over the following centuries, tools became increasingly advanced and smaller in size. With the arrival of the agricultural revolution, tools were transformed into sickles and plows, making agricultural processes easier for humans. About 6,000 years ago, humans began making more advanced tools from copper and bronze, following the use of stone and wooden tools. This discovery of the Bronze Age and the invention of bronze tools paved the way for the invention of the wheel, the train, and later, the car.

Humans began domesticating animals around 15,000 years ago when they started thinking about storing animals in response to seasonal changes. In certain seasons, there was a scarcity of hunting opportunities, so for the first time in history, humans stored and domesticated wild animals to prepare for difficult times. Essentially, humans trapped flocks of wild animals in deep valleys and narrow canyons to prevent them from escaping. Before this, humans ate whatever they found without any concept of storing food. Later generations found this practice useful and convenient, leading to the evolution of animal domestication.

Through this practice, humans could store and eat animals throughout the year without constantly hunting prey and wild beasts. This practice of domesticating animals originated in the Fertile Crescent region (present-day Middle East), where sheep and goats were initially domesticated.

The agricultural revolution originated with the cultivation of specific plants and evolved into crop production. Around 12,000 years ago, humans transitioned from a lifestyle of nomadic hunter-gatherers to permanent, settled societies. As urbanized societies emerged, men became occupied with storing animals and other social activities, while women, who had less busy lives, discovered agricultural processes. However, men later took control of agriculture, and women were deprived of recognition for their revolutionary discovery. In the Fertile Crescent, humans cultivated crops such as wheat, barley, pulses, and peas. The Chinese began planting rice and beans, while Africans started cultivating barley and pulses. In Central American civilizations, potato, corn, and beans were planted. The most significant feature of the agricultural revolution was its role in organizing human societies.

As organized societies emerged, there was a need for states and governments. The agricultural revolution began producing a surplus of crops and food, which facilitated the establishment of states and governments. This led to the development of rulers and leaders who organized and governed societies. These settled, organized societies later formed the foundation of civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Egyptian civilization, Chinese civilization, and the Indus Valley civilization. Once basic states were established, the need for laws and disciplines became apparent, leading to the formation of different social classes. This evolution introduced the concepts of power, wisdom, and skills.

The establishment of states also introduced the concept of administration. Around 5,000 years ago, writing systems were discovered and adopted by civilizations, facilitating the administration process. Ancient Sumerians and Egyptians developed alphabets consisting of symbolic shapes. Early writings were inscribed on clay and stone tablets and later on leather. In the first or second century AD, a Chinese inventor named Cai Lun invented paper, which has become an essential part of the modern world.


(Ubaid Sahil is a student and writer. He can be reached at

You might also like

Leave a comment

error: Content is protected!!