Tracing the roots of Buddhism in Chitral – 1

Buddhist encounter in Chitral Unearthing pre-Islamic era and reaching to an objective root of this part of history of Chitral is very difficult now. It is, however, intriguing to read cultural encounters in Chitral. Travelling through Lotkhoen-route (Lot) Owir and village Lone on his way to Mastuj, Algernon Durand in his book notes “the topes, chortens, and sculptured Buddhas scattered about in Chitral…testify to the spread of the gentle faith…and the voice of history…” in the area. Based on this it can now safely be inferred that rock carvings and topes were probably spread out at that time, but vanished from sight as insensitive and lackadaisical time passed. Many of the travelers, invaders, merchants, pilgrims, and missionaries from different ages and cultures used the famous silk route, and its branches to enter Chitral. Several Afghan and Mongol invasions, and Alexander’s traverse through Chitral, and introducing Greek influence in the area is very famous. According to Hauptmann, the historic period of early Buddhism started from Baltistan – part of Gilgit-Baltistan province, and might had spread to other parts of northern areas and Chitral. According to S. R. Bakshi, Buddhist monk Sung-Yun (had) visited Chitral. In a paper “Pre-Islamic Heritage in the Northern Areas of Pakistan” briefly writing the part of history by the end of 5th century and beginning of 8th century, he records, ‘the political scenery (was) dominated by the dynasty of the PalolaS’ahis… and through there became connected to the domain of the Hephthalites who reigned in the region of Chitral’. It is, however, difficult to correctly specify for how long the reign of Hephthalites continued over Chitral but it may be argued that before 4th century the influence of Buddhism might had continued to be stronger over Chitral.

Illustration of petroglyphs

The Hungarian traveler Karl Eugenvon, as early as 1884, had published rock carvings and inscriptions from Baltistan, he also mentioned of similar representations in Gilgit and Chitral. The surviving rock carvings in Barenis, Charun and Rayeen, thus, correspond to the representations found in the northern areas of Pakistan. The 4th century petroglyph at Charun, according to Directorate of Archaeology and Museums Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, had been written in Brahmi script—was a second Indian scripture (written from left to right) marks clearly the primacy of Buddhist cultural encounter in Chitral. The “Military Report and Gazetteer on Chitral” on the other hand reads that “In a house in this village (Charun) there is a rough drawing of a temple traced on a rock with a Sanskrit inscription similar to the drawing opposite to Barenis”. This report on Barenis relic, reads, of “Opposite the village (Barenis) is a figure with an inscription in ancient Sanskrit cut upon a rock which is said to mean “the pious gift of Raja Jiva Pala.” This inscription refers, in all probability, to a building of which the figure is a facsimile erected somewhere near. The figure is Buddhistic and is interesting, as helping to show that Buddhism existed in Chitral before Mahomedanism”. According to the KP Directorate of Archaeology and Museums the rock carvings at Charun is in Brahmi script, and, the Military Report, identifies the rock in Sanskrit. As the report reads that the rock is ‘in a house’ where the drawing of a temple was carved now it does not exist, but Sir Marc AurelStein, visiting Buddhist rock in Charun in 1906, has written that it was under a roof. The case of Barenis may be the same as well. This report has, however, no details about Rayeen Buddhist rock art work. The KP Directorate of Archaeology and Museums which finds petroglyph at Charun written as “Raji Ji Chanba” and a stupa engravedon the right side.For now, being none to re-search, we tend to rely because it might has been finalized based on expert findings of this institution. Another important aspect of the Military Report reveals an inscription which refers ‘to a building of which the figure is a facsimile’ on Buddhist rocks in Barenis. Where does this building ruin, probably temple, exist now? It “show(s) that Buddhism existed in Chitral before Mohamedanism”, as written in this report, is not so revealing because it has already been argued in detail that Buddhistencounter in Chitral from 3rd to 4th century was in its peak. A report published in Dawn newspaper reads, that “The venerations of Buddha and names of different kings (inscribed in rocks) show the climax of Buddhism…”, underpins the premise that 4th century petroglyph at Charun, in which the name of the king “Raja Ji Chanba” with a side carving of a Buddhist stupa perhaps indicates the culmination of Buddhism in Chitral! Now the 4th century (A.D.) Buddhist ‘Sacred Rocks’ located in village Charun, Barenis and Rayeen stand protected under Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Antiquities Act, 2016. These relics as per this act became protected, and damaging the carvings is a crime. Here question arises how these so-called sacred rocks survived without having such laws, and social awareness about the importance of historical relics; and why this specific rock and place was chosen for inscription?   To be continued… Read Part 2 here (The Writer is M.Phil research scholar at the University of Peshawar).]]>

9 Replies to “Tracing the roots of Buddhism in Chitral – 1”

  1. Dear remember you are the first person in Chitral to write about the history of Buddhism. But you should have done it at your best.

  2. A circle is always here to let venom on any work which is of a quality. The writer should know it . My name has been wrongly written here

  3. بت فروش چترالی…. بت بیزمکو اولاد ! cent percent agree with Dr Khalil.

  4. an interesting research Sir.
    There is our relatives home in Kosht, SarwarAbad, previously known as “Budh”. I have just been through it two times during the last floods when Mastuj road was blocked at Kuragh and Muzgoal bridge was smashed away. I got not enough time to discuss with relatives there. I have heard from many at home and village that the name “Budh” was changed by my grandfather Sharaf Uddin Khan (Mordero Leftan) to Sarwar Abad, Probably in 1950s. Sarwar might be our baba from Sarwarabad. You can discuss if “Budh” was related to some Budhist monuments, traces or it was for just. Salihin, Mursaleen baba and other family members there might be helpful.
    Similarly I had read a book “Chini Nixad”, by Faramurz Raees, in which he beautifully describes Xoghore village related to “Ju gore”-two Budh fixed at mountain there. There were many more such references

  5. why are we interested in traces of Buddhism, they are the enemies of Muslim and Islam, hundred and thousand were killed in Maymar, and now the Buddhists have start Genocide of Muslim in Srilanka.Our relation with China is based on the mutual interest we are not the sincere friend. I don’t understand why we feel good finding our land relating it to Buddhism, why don’t we try to work on the history of Kalash in Chitral. Please discontinue this topic, we don’t like to know our links with Buddhism and all funny statues,, it is time to destroy their remaining if there are any left on our land. You can go ahead and digg and find little statues and sell them in market, we will call you: بت فروش چترالی and you children will be called بت بیزمکو اولاد

    1. Mr. Khalil either remove Dr. from your name while commenting like a lay man or think about the reality that is there once the existence of Budhism in chitral and the author has put forward the historical fact that you can not deny.

    2. Well written AM Khan. Don’t worry about Khalil’s comment. He is not a researcher so it very simple to understand how he finds past as part of Chitral’s history.

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