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Media and politics

aamir Media was rightly described as a fourth estate of the state because it provides knowledge and information to people about other three estates. It is source of knowledge. Media is free in democratic political system. Press concept came with free economy because people considered newspaper as a profitable commodity and in this way press evolved. Newspapers in first stage were private, costly and only available to elite class but as literacy rate increased, its price fell and quantity and variety improved, several hundred newspapers printed in England. British press was free and independent and private nature was cause of its free role. In past if any restriction on press it was on the name of national security. In 1997 labor party government along with human rights legislation also passed freedom of press legislation. Early broadcasting system environment begin in major powers with different functions of press. In United States for advertisement, in Soviet Union as a tool against authoritarian government while in Britain for development of national service in the public interest. It was perception of all that broadcasting is powerful medium. Parties in democracy not want control of each other on broadcasting. Broadcasting publically founded and politically independent initially there were four channels in 2002. Britain then got access to many channels and broadcasting became multi channel like broadcasting of United States. Television commission and broadcasting standard commission made to monitor broadcasting. In 1990 impartiality was the core concept in coverage of political issue enthralled by broadcasting act. Actually these acts and terms which showing media, its right direction and analyzed its value and place. Journalist then redeemed the democratic role of media. British broadcaster generally adopted impartial approach. Press at that time was expected to take a political situation. British newspaper had plurality of different opinion. Media thus by difficult phase perform its democratic role. Media has important role in constructing political environment. It tells us about political realities. Agenda setting process of media has contribution in any political process. Its agenda is in favor of any party by highlighting some issues and neglecting some others. In other political works like awareness about education and diseases, media has a key role. Like anti HIV-AIDS health messages and policies could be transmitted to the population through media. There is a connection between media coverage and political decision making. Journalists agenda shaped in many ways. Role of media in agenda making is very colossal because agenda is not always wrong there is also a positive agenda which ranks countries in the international system. For policy making about events which are at distant information is produced by quality journalism. It also gives the society a framework to think and act rationally. Media is also victim of criticism that sometimes journalism is apolitical because it complicates the situation rather than telling causes and solution of events. However many other experts rejected pessimistic account of media. It also prepared agenda against ruling class in United States and Britain and captured their scandals. Popular and quality journalism is different. Quality journalism is a liberalist form and positivist approach. But people like those which is easy to understand and appealing which is popular journalism. Historically the majority of British newspapers supported one party i.e. conservative party. Journalism also gives editorial support to one political party. This is not positivist approach. When media is supporting one party it does not mean that it is against other political parties but it is simply ignoring others which create problems in political environment. Political effect of media may be viewed in borders term. Elite class is always hegemonic by using different tools. Hegemony maintains is cultural process and media plays a titanic role in creating hegemony. Journalist not only reports events but particularly participate. Participation of journalist is through different process. Impartiality means to stop debates on media in favor of one party by excluding others party. Impartiality in practice means giving equal representations to all parties and channel and this is media’s right direction and its original role which it after neglect both cognitive factor and materialist approach. This is pro- systematic biasness of media. Hegemonic model is in many cases because antiestablishment theory used. By sharing and displaying every case and events undermines many institutions. Like news about President’s sexual habit and Watergate scandal undermines institutions of presidency in United States for many years, this shows that media by making minor issues as major weakening institutions which are backbone of a country. In one sense it is also harmful for media itself because media efficiently works in democracy and strong democracy exist where strong institutions exists. Analysis of media production can be grouped into three categories. Commercial Organizational Professional As commercial is concerned, journalist are always is competition with another to increase the audience. Broadcasters sell information to possible numbers of readers and increase advertisement. It is border term some it is profitable while other considered it threat for them. However neutrality and originality in commercialization is good. The last few years have been the years of journalistic advancement of news agencies and the focus of the world population has shifted from print and television news towards internet blogging and net-only news services owing to the provision and easy availability of internet facility around the globe. And the world eyes rely upon politicians and law makers for the supply of news to quench the thirst of the world viewers of news agencies and doing so a relation of interdependence has evolved between news providers and the news agencies (i.e. news agencies feed upon politicians.) To put it in single words the big media moguls are a product of such interdependent relations described above and they are apples of most powerful affluent politician’s eye. The profession of journalism and ethics are two inseparable entities in the light of modern world events and political developments. There are certain norms and cultures in media and politics which account for the journalistic behavioral patterns and they are attributed to the fact that there are certain elements in the society which desire media attention and other deserve it. For instance, a news agency cannot and should not provide the same coverage to the terrorists and anti state elements as it does and should to the public and social welfare oriented political and governmental or even non-governmental, state and non-state actors. Thus both media and politics have relationship which has effect on political environment. What role media plays should be free and independent. Increasing literacy rate also increased the importance of political media. For restrictions on media national security remains issue for state and nation and it also affected the independence of press too. Act of broadcasting and different commission under it checks broadcasting progress and remove biasness. Concept of impartiality had been given and many channels introduced which resulted emergence of different opinions. Concept of agenda making role is present in political media which leads towards positive or negative directions. Media role is political introduction of rationality in practice about different issue some people criticize media on different issue while other respect whole criticism. Media can also play vital role in creating hegemony, thus the role of media with some drawbacks is important because it is very much important to understand and arrange political environment of country. Its role is so many central that coexisted factor of government. The writer is student of MSC political science at Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad. ]]>

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